Posts Tagged ‘Non-governmental organization’

Summer 2012 has been a busy one in Addis.  My time has been split doing work for VSO Ethiopia and for the Cafod/Sciaf/Trocaire Joint Ethiopia Office.  Here is a summary of what I have been up to over the last few months:


Task 1 – SCIAF (Scottish arm of Caritasapplication for independent registration with the Government of Ethiopia’s Charities and Services Association submitted

International non-governmental organisations wishing to operate in Ethiopia must register and be licensed by the Government of Ethiopia’s Charities and Services Association.  Cafod, Sciaf, and Trocaire operate a joint office in Ethiopia and in the past have been able to register with the CSA jointly as well.  This year the CSA demanded that each register separately and distinguish which projects each organisation is responsible for funding.  In order to complete the narrative of SCIAF’s application to the CSA, I interviewed each of the Senior Programme managers in the CST joint office to learn about which projects received funding from SCIAF.  The four project areas supported by the CST joint office are:  Humanitarian, Sustainable Livelihoods, HIV/AIDS, and Civil Society. Although SCIAF is the smallest partner in the joint Ethiopia office, they support elements of projects in each of the programme areas.  SCIAF’s application for registration with the CSA was submitted at the end of August 2012. 


Task 2 – €500 000 matching funds application for Oromia Self Reliance Association to expand water infrastructure in the Borana region of southern Ethiopia sent to CAFOD

The lack of potable water supply in Oromia National Regional State, South West Shewa Zone, Wolisso and Goro districts is the source of ongoing problems in the area. Water supply and sanitation coverage in the districts is low and the majority of the people rely on surface water such as small streams and unprotected traditional hand dug wells, which are not potable, to get water for human and livestock consumption.  Moreover, sanitation and hygiene education coverage in the district is low.

Women and children who assume the responsibility of fetching water are the most affected portion of the community enduring hardship from the lack of this facilities. They have to travel long distance to fetch unpotable water for household consumption.  As a result, the communities are exposed to water borne diseases, such as diarrhoea, endangering their health status.  Schools and students will also benefit from this project as lack of water supply and sanitation facilities are also one of the critical problems of schools in rural areas in the target districts.

The Oromia Self Reliance Association aims to expand water infrastructure in the area by:

  • Developing of 18 shallow water wells. It is planned to develop 12 community managed water wells and 6 schools based water wells for 6 target schools during the three year project period.
  • Constructing of wellheads and distribution structures for community and schools, respectively
  • Constructing 12 community managed shower blocks and 12 washing basins
  • Training community members on hygiene and sanitation, Community led total sanitation (CLTS), participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation(PHAST) approaches
  • Constructing 12 blocks of child and gender friendly ventilated improved latrine blocks for students and teachers
  • Establishing and training WATSAN committees, local water technicians, health clubs
  • Conducting baseline assessment and feasibility studies for the water sources
  • Conducting environmental and gender analysis of the project
  • Training of  health/environmental clubs members in the schools to support hygiene and sanitation activities including outreach activities
  • Organising and support 360 poor women in to self help groups and provide them with entrepreneurial skill training so that they will be engaged in income generating activities


Task 3 – Google web developer tools to raise the quality of hits for Google searches of CAFOD/SCIAF/Trocaire employed

Conducting a search using google for “CAFOD SCIAF Trocaire Ethiopia”, “CST Joint Office”, or any combination of these terms returned results limited to expired job postings on Ethiopian employment websites and little information about activities undertaken by the organisation.  Using my blog and google web developer tools. I have changed the search results for these terms so that the results now contain details of projects at the CAFOD/SCIAF/Trocaire Joint Ethiopia Office.


Task 4 –   Destinations for those Google searches created

In addition to creating the pathways for google searches, I also created the content contained at the destination by writing visibility brochures, and project summaries of projects at the CST Joint Ethiopia Office and posting them on my blog.  The visibility brochures are available for viewing at https://morenewsfromafar.wordpress.com


Task 5 – Planned, tailored and delivered English classes to the staff at CAFOD/SCIAF/Trocaire Joint Ethiopia Office

English classes were designed for and delivered to staff at the CST Joint Ethiopia Office.  Advanced and upper intermediate conversation classes were offered, along with specialised classes to improve listening and writing skills, and idiomatic English.  We discussed everyday topics, such as the difference between living in the city and the country:

We sang some songs:

We watched some episodes of ‘Friends’

And we practised writing:

Task 6 – Results-based Management training

Results-based management training has equipped me with the tools necessary to organise and present my work in a manner consistent with international development organisations.  The most useful tool in my new management toolkit is the logic model:

Task 7 – Interviewed candidates for the International Citizenship Service (ICS) programme

ICS is a youth volunteer programme funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID).  It pairs UK youth volunteers with Ethiopian youth volunteers and places them in local work environments in Ethiopia.  Over the summer I had the opportunity to interview candidates to serve as Ethiopian national volunteers in this program.  It was great to learn about the ICS programme, as well as to meet some highly motivated and talented young Ethiopians. 

Task 8 – Planned and facilitated September In-country Training for incoming VSO volunteers

Thirty-five new volunteers and accompanying partners arrived in mid-September for a twelve day training at the Ethiopian Red Cross Training Institute in a suburb just outside of Addis Ababa.  The training was facilitated by myself and two other serving VSO volunteers.  Delivering to an audience comprised of teachers, doctors, midwives, engineers and architects was somewhat daunting, but made easier by everyone’s positivity and flexibility.  The days were long, but the job satisfaction level was very high. 


The summer is not quite over, and there is still a workshop to conduct next week for Ethiopian partner organisations participating in the inaugural ICS programme in Hawassa in January.  But my time in the city is winding down and soon I’ll be back in the desert. 



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The question of whether international development programmes should aim to strengthen civil society is a tricky one to answer in Ethiopia.  Organisations are allowed to engage in civil society strengthening activities as long as they raise the funds for their organisations from domestic sources.  This limits the ability of foreign governments to influence these policy spheres.  After all, what sovereign country wants to have foreign values imposed on it?  The flipside is that if civil society is ignored by the government, no local efforts to strengthen it may take place at all, and civil society may decay. 

Another important issue regarding development programmes is whether non-governmental organisations should be compelled to limit the percentage of their budgets spent on administrative costs.  Limiting administrative expenditures means that Ngos cannot fill their offices with redundant staff being paid good salaries.  But what constitutes administration?  Is the cost of a teacher conducting a workshop on learner-centred pedagogy considered administrative?  Interpreting ‘administrative’ to mean anything that is not tangible has the potential to limit efforts to improve Ethiopian civil society.

The second phase of the CAFOD/SCIAF/TROCAIRE Joint Ethiopia Office (CST–JEP) Civil Society Programme was initiated in October 2009, and targeted ten Civil Society Organisations. The goal of the programme was to promote the effective representation of Ethiopian citizens through active participation and engagement in civil society networks.  In turn, the programme aimed to facilitate dialogue with government in formulating policy.  CST-JEP intended to achieve this by building capacity within the ten partner organizations.  This three year programme was aimed at institutionalising accountability and transparency in the ten targeted organisations, promoting linkages among them, harmonising and coordinating their national and regional networks, and developing constructive and sustainable relations with government.

One of the major challenges of governance in Ethiopia is achieving downward accountability, with authorities and institutions held accountable to citizens and communities, rather than simply towing the party line.  Institutionalised downward accountability will ensure a more effective and transparent local government that is responsive to citizens.  Civil society organizations should be catalysts in empowering communities and proactively engaging all levels of government.  The cumulative effect of this will be a more inclusive, participatory and sustainable development process.  Yet Civil Society Organisations have difficulty making progress in their efforts on this front due to a relatively recent governmental proclamation which has altered the regulatory environment in which they operate.

The Charities and Societies Proclamation (CSP) enacted by the Government of Ethiopia in early 2009 has created a fundamental change in the legal and institutional setup for operating Civil Society Organisations, by classifying them into categories based on their source of funding, and by limiting their activities based on those funding sources.  The goal of the proclamation is to limit the influence of foreign-funded agencies and to empower locally-funded ones. The proclamation established the Charities and Societies Agency (ChSA) and granted the institution wide-ranging discretionary powers governing the activities of Civil Society Organisations.  Uncertainty surrounding the status of foreign-funded institutions has been compounded as regional governments work to adapt their regulatory policies to match the demands of the CSP.

Foreign assistance in fields such as drought recovery and sustainable livelihoods are welcome, but Article 2 of the Proclamation has identified several “no-go areas” for organisations that receive more than 10% of their funding from foreign sources.  The list of prohibited areas includes a broad range of issues: human rights, justice and women’s rights. For Civil Society Organisations to engage in activities related to these areas, they need to register as an Ethiopian Society or Charity, and raise at least 90% of their operating budget from Ethiopian sources.  This entrenches the sovereignty of the Ethiopian government in formulating policy within these areas.  It also means that Civil Society Organisations registered with the Charities and Societies Agency that receive more than 10% of their budget from international sources are barred from engaging in activities promoting human rights, justice, and women’s rights.

Facilitating trust building and positively communicating with all levels of government are the keys to strengthening Ethiopian civil society. Civil Society Organisations need to cultivate constructive engagement with the government and learn how to creatively link advocacy and policy dialogue with service delivery interventions implemented at the local level.  The support should focus on internal governance; constituency building; local fund raising and income generation; evidence-based research; and practical skills on lobbying and policy dialogue.  Only this way can long–term sustainability be ensured and Ethiopian civil society’s dependency on foreign funding be reduced.

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The CAFOD/SCIAF/Trocaire Joint Ethiopia Office works in partnership with local non-governmental organisations (NGOs).  Some of these NGOs are large, while others are very small.  The Borana Pastoralist Girls’ Education Association is a small one, but it deserves to have its voice heard.

The Borana region is in southern Ethiopia near the Kenyan border, and it has been in the news over the last couple weeks because of a simmering ethnic conflict between the local population and settlers from Ethiopia’s Somali region.  Somali people have been displaced by the ongoing fighting in Ethiopia’s there, and have sought a new life in the Borana region.  The people of Moyale, Borana are resentful of having to give up valuable grazing land for their livestock to the newcomers, and this has led to violent disputes.  Last week, the Federal Police were brought in to calm the situation, but it remains tense and off limits to travel.  The Borana lifestyle was difficult without the added violence. 

The pastoralist lifestyle of the Borana region is fraught with challenges:  inconsistent rainfall patterns and drought, fluctuating prices of commodities, and lack of value chain infrastructure.  These struggles leave most of the region’s people eking out a living with subsistence farming. Like other Ethiopian communities, the Borana pastoralists are victims of poverty, HIV/AIDS and other chronic diseases.  Despite the Ethiopian government’s prioritisation of remote regions such as Borana, the effort made so far in supporting pastoralist girls’ education is inadequate.  Marginalised sections of the population face the additional challenge of having to survive in the region without the traditional support of family.  Orphaned pastoralist girls in the Borana lowlands must the region’s harsh challenges on their own. 

Pastoralist girls in Ethiopia’s Borana region have a low rate of education enrolment.  In order to complete school, these girls must not only pay for tuition and medical care, but must also find a way to live within a reasonable proximity of the school.  If marginalised female students do not have extended family living in a town, there is little opportunity for them to attend school.  The caregivers and extended families of girls in the Borana region usually lack the resources to pay for education beyond the primary level, and this limits the opportunities these girls have to break out of a cycle of poverty.  There is low awareness of this problem within the community, at least partly because most community members are already affected by economic problems of their own.  A substantial number of households are eating two or fewer meals per day.  As a result, marginalised females in the region are highly likely to drop out of school.  Education is the only way for Borana’s pastoralist girls to break out of this cycle of poverty.  A top priority for the Borana Pastoralist Girls’ Education Association is to re-enroll girls who have dropped out of school for financial reasons. 

The Borana Pastoralist Girls Education Association (BPGEA) aims to tackle the challenges faced by pastoralist girls in graduating from secondary school.  The BPGEA aims to promote pastoralist girls education in rural Borana, provide access to education in the region for marginalised girls, and to protect them from exploitative labour.  The BPGEA plans to expand its support by providing lodging and bedding for pastoralist girls attending secondary school, and it is doing so with the assistance of a small grant provided by the CAFOD/SCIAF/Trocaire Joint Ethiopia Office for the purchase of beds and linen.

The BPGEA is a relatively new organisation, and was formed in 2011.  It has been certified by the federal government’s Charities and Services Association. The initial project aim for the BPGEA is to assist fifteen marginalised girls from remote areas whose families cannot afford to pay for school.  In some cases this marginalisation has come about because the girl is orphaned, but girls whose caregivers suffer from a disability or who live in abject poverty also qualify for support.  The BPGEA has plans to expand its services after the initial fifteen students graduate, and it hopes to continue supporting the girls’ post-secondary educations, so that they may graduate to better lives.

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CAFOD/SCIAF/Trocaire Joint Ethiopia Office Trade team summary brochure:

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